A mathematical model for histamine synthesis, release, and control in varicosities.

Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a

neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord. HA neurons make few synapses, but release HA from the cell bodies and from varicosities when the neurons fire. Thus the HA neural system seems to modulate and control the HA concentration in projection regions. It is known that high HA levels in the extracellular space inhibit serotonin release, so HA may play a role in the etiology of depression. To read the rest of the article click here.