It is extremely challenging to chemically diagnose disorders of the brain. There is hence great interest in designing and optimizing tools for direct detection of chemical biomarkers implicated in neurological disorders to improve diagnosis and treatment. Tools that are capable of monitoring brain chemicals, neurotransmitters in particular, need to be biocompatible, perform with high spatiotemporal resolution, and ensure high selectivity and sensitivity. Recent advances in electrochemical methods are addressing these criteria; the resulting devices demonstrate great promise for in vivo neurotransmitter detection. None of these devices are currently used for diagnostic purposes, however these cutting-edge technologies are promising more sensitive, selective, faster, and less invasive measurements. Via this review we highlight significant technical advances and in vivo studies, performed in the last 5 years, that we believe will facilitate the development of diagnostic tools for brain disorders. To read more, click here.